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Search okcupid - pairThis ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. By clicking or navigating the site, you agree to allow our collection of information on and off Facebook through cookies. This Is What She Found. The diary entries also contained no chemical date tag, as did the ink of the pen. Handwriting and Forgery Examination. Do not post identifying information! Click Here When you are a part of the US Military, your life is always changing.
Full Name required : Preferred Contact Method: Email Phone. Email required : Phone:. Enter Characters from Left : Ink Dating is done in two primary forms.
The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, search okcupid, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating.
These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, search okcupid, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating, search okcupid.
This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, search okcupid, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these.
However, search okcupid, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments. Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations.
In order to do this the following steps are search okcupid Ink dating — chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured.
Other times the results will disclose a range of a few years as possibilities the ink could have been made. Based on the identification of formulation, which will be discussed next, it may be possible to exclude some of the possibilities and further narrow the range sometimes to only one year. Manufacturers used two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations.
Neither of these is currently being used, search okcupid. It should be noted that some ink manufacturers never search okcupid any date tags in their inks, search okcupid. This was most popular gay dating site further the identification of inks using the standard ink library approach.
To be covered further down this page. This was a single tag was could be extracted with the ink, separated and analyzed with ultra-violet light, search okcupid.
For this reason this type of tag is commonly referred to as a florescent date tag. By the combination of the presence or absence of each tag either a specific year or a range of years could be established.
The procedure most commonly used for the detection, isolation, and analysis of these date tags in ink dating is: The comparison between the known tag and the questioned ink being examined should focus on whether the florescent compounds are the same color in the known and questioned.
No more than three of the four tags were ever used in a given year. These results should then be photographed using ultra-violet light and color film for presentation at a later time if required, search okcupid.
Color slide film has been shown to work well, especially since a print can be made directly from a slide or used in a projector for presentation. The detection of these tags is complicated and requires expensive and rare scientific equipment. The primary method of detection of these tags is called XREOF X-ray excited optical fluorescence. Information on these tags is confidential and closely kept.
This type of examination is very rarely to never used in actual casework currently. The ink library approach, as it is commonly referred to, search okcupid, comprises the other portion of the static approach to ink age determination. This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a known library of inks to determine search okcupid manufacturer and formula of the ink.
Then search okcupid researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can be established. This would be significant if the date the ink was first available is after the date the ink was purportedly written. The search okcupid by which questioned ink is compared to a standard reference ink library is as follows: In the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any of the standards in the library.
This is another place where a large body of knowledge of running inks is significant, to evaluate differences that are attributable to differences in batches of inks and differences that lead to the conclusion of different formulations.
The best way to establish the degree of differences that can be caused by different batches of the same formulation is to run many samples of the same ink that is known to be different batches, search okcupid.
With inks available in common production this is much easier than with inks that are rare. Search okcupid differences that the examiner attributes to differences in batches when making an identification or elimination should be demonstrable in some manner.
The earliest date that the ink could have been available would then be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible matches. If the universe of possible matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion can be expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of all other formulations in the reference library.
The size of the reference library of the search okcupid conducting the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and also in determining the significance of a match. The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.
The second option should not be confused with the same ink manufacturer producing the same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Cross blue ball point pens, search okcupid. Many other similar examples exist. It should also be noted that if extensive fading has occurred, the ink and paper search okcupid been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, i, search okcupid.
Obviously, no library can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness can be accurately stated, since the number of unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated, search okcupid. If more analysis is search okcupid or some unique component is present, search okcupid less of a qualification is necessary, search okcupid.
Keeping up search okcupid changes in formulations by manufacturers is also important. In recent years several manufacturers have made minor changes to popular formulations, which are evident in the above TLC examinations.
Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya. There are also numerous other examples like the two mentioned.
Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, one can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be used to aid in examinations. Ink dating — first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of the evidence by the plaintiff. There were many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not.
Search okcupid of the entries that did concern the alleged harassment had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that a relative ink age determination discussed in the next chapter could not be performed. The unquestioned entries were examined first. These inks were all uncontaminated and showed to be written by a large variety of different writing instruments over the four-year period of the diaries.
If the questioned entries were genuine and written on or about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of randomness. One formulation was a blue ballpoint ink and the other was a reddish-brown ballpoint ink. Furthermore, the questioned inks matched in formulation to other inks contained in the diaries but was a different batch of ink than any unquestioned ink in any of the four years of writing that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries are consistent with one another.
Based on this evidence it was concluded that the entries were not written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead at all the same time or near the same time.
The doctor denied writing these entries, search okcupid. A handwriting examination was conducted on these words, which is detailed in an earlier chapter as well as a relative ink age comparison, which is in the next chapter. A thin layer chromatography examination was conducted on the two questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout the chart.
It was found that the questioned portions were written with a pen that only matched writings known to have been done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different pen than any writing that was done elsewhere in the chart by any other writer in the dozens of entries that were used for comparison purposes. This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination.
The entry was written with a blue ballpoint ink. There were many different types of ink used throughout the diary. A thin layer chromatography TLC test was conducted to compare the ink formulations used to write the questioned entry to the other unquestioned blue ballpoint inks used in the book. If similar ink was found elsewhere in the diary, a relative ink age comparison test could have been conducted to determine when the questioned entry was written.
However, the results of the TLC test showed that the questioned ink was a different formulation than any other entry in the entire diary.
This result alone is an indication that the questioned entry was not search okcupid contemporaneous with its purported date. A subsequent TLC test was done to identify the make and manufacturer of the ink used in the questioned entry in order to determine when this type of ink was first commercially available.
The ink was identified as a blue ballpoint formulation manufactured by the Bic Pen Company. Ink dating — fourth search okcupid example — The fourth example was a portion of evidence in a case that contained a mountain of evidence showing that some engineering notebooks were added to and written after the fact.
Some of the evidence in this case has been discussed, in previous chapters of this book, search okcupid. A subsequent examination showed that the questioned ink did not contain a chemical date tag. In this case, another expert disagreed with the identification of this ink. The opposing expert concluded the questioned ink was manufactured by Bic. The issue of the identification was one of many issues that were put in front of a California Federal Judge to decide upon. This is an example of how a presentation can be made to the court using TLC testing to demonstrate the basis for a conclusion of an ink identification.
This case was somewhat unique in the manner in which the evidence was collected and submitted. The issue was a hit-and-run in a parking lot.
The TLC testing showed the formulation to be the same in the pen as in the examined entries from the diary. The diary entries also contained no chemical date tag, as did the ink of the pen. This was also significant since the ink was an ink manufactured by Formulabs, which put date tags in most of their inks during the time period the pen was purchased by the victim.
No differences were found at any level of analysis between the ink contained in the diary and the ink in the seized pen. This evidence was used in the criminal trial linking one of the suspects to the victim. The ink on this receipt was examined using TLC testing and specifically for the detection of a chemical date tag. The second way to date inks is by how long the ink has been on the paper, this is a dynamic approach to search okcupid dating that measures changes over time to the ink as it sits on paper.
The three methods of comparison that are used are one or more of the following: rate of extraction or R-ratios, extent of extraction or percent extraction, and third, dye ratios.
Whenever a relative ink age test is conducted it is imperative that the same ink formulation from the same type of paper comprise both samples. If these two parameters were not met than any direct comparison of samples to determine age would be invalid. Three different ink dating methods were used to measure the relative dryness levels of the heated and unheated samples: R-ratios, Percent Extraction, and Dye-Ratios.
The first ink dating method is the rate of extraction, which measures the rate at which the dyes in the ink are extracted into a weak solvent by taking samples at different time intervals. The third is the Dye-Ratio, which measures the relative concentration of each dye to one another. These procedures have been used for over ten years. If at least one of these tests shows a significant statistical difference between the heated and unheated samples, it is concluded that the ink is still in the drying process.
The calculations for the rate of extraction for each sample were made by dividing each absorbence value by the final absorbence value. This allows for a mass-independent evaluation of different samples. The calculations for the dye ratios were done by dividing the results for each band by one another. This would have three dye ratios. The plate above is a high performance thin layer chromatography HPTLC silica gel plate demonstrates the variation in several samples of blue tinder def point inks.
Enter Characters from Left :. Forensics Case Examples by Specialty. Laurence Robert Simson, Jr. Ink Dating Expert Witness. Contact our Ink Dating Expert Witness Lab Today! Speckin Forensic Document Analyst Ink Dating Specialist, search okcupid. Medical Records Review for Alterations, search okcupid. Speckin Forensics of Facebook. Semen and Sperm Detection. Speckin Forensics - YouTube. Return To Top Computer and Machine Generated Documents. Search okcupid — Fire Investigation.
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